In the 12 months to September, Poland had 280,000 live births.

That was the lowest annualized figure on record and 34,800 fewer than in the same period a year ago, according to calculations by economist Rafał Mundry based on data from Statistics Poland (GUS).

The number of deaths over that same period stood at 414,100, following a decline from the COVID-induced peaks of 2020-2022 and a return to the kind of figures seen before the pandemic.